Communications Essay Writing Homework Help

 Communications Essay Writing Homework Help

 Communications Essay Writing Homework Help

DSC 2190 Midterm Essay: Rationale for IDSC Major In this assignment, you will explain your rationale for applying to the IDSC major. (If you are not planning to apply to change your major to IDSC, then see the alternative prompt below at the end of this document). Your short essay must explain ALL of the following: • Each emphasis area (discipline) that you are pursuing or planning to pursue within your IDSC degree and why you chose these emphasis areas, • How the areas relate to each other, • Why you are pursuing a degree in Interdisciplinary Studies (why IDSC is a better fit for you rather than a traditional major), and • How the degree (and emphasis areas) will be used by you to further your longterm career goals. Requirements: • • • • • • Use professional language. This should NOT be a narrative story about your life. You should consider your audience: the faculty advisory board. This is a persuasive document. The purpose is to convince the board that IDSC is a good fit for you and that it will allow you to achieve your academic and career goals. State your case clearly and provide a logical, specific rationale for each emphasis area in relation to your desired career. MLA formatted header (your name, my name, course number, date), then the body 12 pt. professional font Two pages, double spaced, minimum (you can have more than two) Uploaded to Canvas as a Word doc or Pdf (no Pages) by the deadline listed in Canvas *** If you have decided not to pursue IDSC as your major, you may write your essay explaining which major you decided to pursue, why you chose that major, and how you will use that major to attain your career goals.than the objectives that follow. A goal also does not have to be specifically measurable. The measured achievement of stra­ tegic objectives should ensure that the overall goal is reached. Nevertheless, determining the goal may not be as simple as it appears. Too of­ ten, organizational communications and marketing personnel act unilaterally to set goals. But those are not isolated functions within an organization; they should be integral parts of the overall management approach. Setting campaign goals in isola­ tion, or without consideration of the organization’s overall goals, is dangerous and can lead to a lack of internal support. Two precautions can aid you in avoiding this problem. First, be sure you closely align campaign goals with the organization’s mission. Doing so will also align cam­ paign goals and objectives with the organization’s long-term purpose. A campaign goal is not as broad as a mission statement, but should be seen as a significant step toward achieving the organization’s mission. Second, verify that the campaign goal does not conflict with existing goals and objectives. Does my campaign goal mesh with what marketing, advertising, sales and public relations are already trying to accomplish? Will the campaign be cooper­ ating with or competing against existing initiatives? It is typically not enough to “not conflict” with the goals of other entities. Truly sound and defensible goals and objectives will enhance and support the overall organiza­ tional mission and goals. Figure 5.1 identifies some examples of possible organizational °db Figure 5.1 ____________________________________________________________ 0 Examples of organizational goals Business sector • • • • Maintain profitability. Maintain and gradually improve stock rating. Achieve a positive trust ranking. Maintain an operating environment with minimal government regulation. Public sector • • • • • Increase use of funded social programs. Cut overhead and increase flow of funds to programs. Decrease fraudulent use of social programs. Improve citizen access to and use of information. Increase government funding. Nonprofit sector • • • • Expand research efforts. Expand program reach. Secure private financial support of programs. Provide for the safety of the community. 82 chapter $ Setting goals and objectives goals. Remember that effective communication with key publics is necessary to create the environment in which the organization can reach its goals. Any single campaign — whether designed to solve a problem or to proactively position the organization — must be planned within the framework of the organization’s goals. Identifying objectives Once the goal is set, the challenge is to break down what you want to accomplish into smaller, more specific tasks. If your company’s goal is to expand a research program, your communications campaign may need to set objectives that involve se­ curing public approval, generating funding, attracting personnel and building com­ munity support for the renovation of facilities. Objectives are specific, measurable statements of what needs to be accomplished for the goal to be reached. Whereas a goal may be somewhat ambiguous (e.g., not defining how much is enough funding or profit), objectives must be absolutely precise. We strongly recommend that objectives meet the following eight criteria that have been carefully refined by communications and business professionals. Keep in mind that precision is important in not only being able to carry out but also to effectively measure your objectives. Specific. Objectives should be free from ambiguity. What you are hoping to accomplish should be specific and clearly articulated. Each objective should address only one outcome. You shouldn’t write an objective to increase awareness and improve sales. Similarly, achieving general awareness may not be enough. Be specific about what kind of awareness you are seeking. Do you want to increase awareness of an organization’s existence or of a specific product line? Are you targeting HIV awareness or, more specifically, the effect of its transmission to newborns? And what levels of awareness are you seeking based on current levels of public knowledge? Having spe­ cific objectives helps you more clearly understand what publics you need to reach and what you need each public to do. Your approach to achieving these outcomes and the associated tasks will become the strategies and tac­ tics used to reach key publics later in the planning process. Written. Objectives must be written down and published (at least shared with the communications and marketing team). This may seem obvious, but too often organizations assume everyone knows about and understands the campaign’s purpose and objectives. Unless they are written and shared, they have probably not been well thought out, and there may be differing perceptions of what the objectives really are. One member of the team may be working toward something entirely different than the other members because his/her perception of the desired outcome is different than the rest of the team’s. Putting your objectives in writing helps to solidify and refine the plan while avoiding confusion over what you are trying to accomplish. Further, written objectives serve as reference points throughout the planning process. When you come to a point of disagreement on any ele­ ment of the planning process or when you run out of ideas somewhere in the process, it often helps to go back and review exactly what it is you are trying to accomplish. Finally, written objectives serve as tangible guides for evaluation. They allow you to demonstrate how far you’ve come — not only in a campaign but also as a professional. chapter 5 Measurable. Objectives must be improvement-oriented and quantifiable. Anything measurable must have a number tied to it. Numbers can be rep­ resented in percentages or simple figures. Examples of percentage-based objectives are: a 20 percent increase in sales, a 50 percent jump in dona­ tions and a 60 percent decline in the number of high school students who have experimented with drugs before graduation. Examples of simple figure objectives are: raising $200,000 for the women’s shelter, getting 3,000 participants in a 5K and engaging 6,000 people on an issue through social media. To be improvement-oriented, objectives must work together in order to achieve your overall goal. Rarely will one objective suffice. Plan to have a number of objectives that all measure progress toward the goal. If your goal is to open a new food bank, objectives could focus on fundraising, citizen support, government support and determining the best location. When working with percentages, remember to carefully state the percent increase or decrease and use clarifying phrases. Otherwise, you might set yourself up to disappoint management’s expectations created by your own objectives. If you want to increase the percentage of ele­ mentary school kids brushing their teeth at least twice a day, you should follow up that number by specifically stating the benchmark or starting point. You might write an objective like this: to increase the number of elementary school children in Arizona who brush their teeth at least twice a day from 25 percent to 75 percent by May 1, 2015. Make sure you know the difference between a 50 percent increase and a 50 percentage­ point increase. The first is dependent on the starting point to calculate the actual increase. Fifty percent of 25 is 12.5, which would make your target 37.5 percent of school children brushing their teeth. A 50 percent­ age point-increase takes you from 25 percent to 75 percent of school children brushing — two very different results. Similarly, a 20 percent increase in participation among a total population of 100 is not 20 peo­ ple. The percent increase depends on the current level of participation, not the total population. If 50 of 100 people are currently participating, a 20 percent increase would be 10 people (20 percent of 50), from 50 to 60 participants, or a 10 percentage-point improvement. Be very precise when planning and writing your objectives. Sometimes statistics on opinion, awareness and action are not readily available. If you are certain the level of knowledge or participation is mini­ mal, you can reasonably state the level it needs to rise to in order to accom­ plish the goal. If you don’t have statistical measures for something, find another way to count the improvement. Attainable. Objectives need to be realistic if they are to be attainable. Keeping objectives specific and clear will help you set realistic targets. But you still need to set your sights on significant improvement. Management will scorn objectives that don’t cause the organization to stretch and are too easily achieved. Executives have little respect for employees and managers who are unwilling to reach a bit, to take some risks and to challenge themselves. Nevertheless, if you shoot for the moon and just hit the stars, you may be branded as having fallen short, even if the stars were all you really needed to reach. Setting goals and objectives 83 84 chapter 5 Setting goals and objectives Writing goals and objectives The local oil refinery has a good record of community involvement and an approval rating among local publics of 75 percent. Nevertheless, it continual­ ly faces scrutiny and even opposition from environmental activists. Recently, one of the pipelines sprung a leak. Before the leak was found and fixed, the equivalent of 100 barrels of oil seeped out into a small creek that runs through a residential neighborhood. The company immediately mobilized teams of experts, employees and local volunteers to clean up the small spill and restore the area (as much as possible) to its original pristine condition. GOAL To restore the company’s approval rating and neutralize regulatory threats. OBJECTIVES © Tukkata Moji/Shutterstock.com 1. Raise awareness to 80 percent of the company’s efforts to respond responsibly to the spill within three weeks. 2. Raise awareness to 80 percent of the company’s local contribution to the community and economy within six months. 3. Restore public approval to its previous 75 percent level within six months. 4. Ensure no new state or local regulations (resulting from the spill) are enacted within the next three years. Time-bound. Objectives need to have a deadline. They should clearly outline when you expect to achieve a specific outcome. Setting objectives in time also determines when you will measure your success or failure. The du­ ration of a campaign will be determined by the problem or opportunity being addressed. Some campaigns may require short, quick efforts (a few days, weeks or months) while others may necessitate long-range efforts. Some campaigns have built-in dead­ lines (e.g., attendance at a special event for a product launch). Others are designed to change perceptions and attitudes, which happens slowly. Every objective, however, must include a target date. In some cases, interim measures may be helpful in measuring progress along the way and keeping you on track to reach the objective. For example, you might have a fundraising objective to raise $30 million for the construction of a new community theatre. Bench­ marking the objective to raise $10 million in the first six months may be necessary to give the project the momentum it needs to succeed. Cost-conscious. Objectives must take into consideration the available budget. It goes without saying that you should choose the most cost-effective ways to achieve the desired outcomes in any campaign. There will always be organizational pressure to accomplish more with less. Smart strate­ gists look for low-cost options first. Although you won’t always know what budget will be available for a specific pro­ gram when you are at this preliminary stage of planning, be sensitive to the organi­ zation’s internal climate. A recession, slow sales or downsizing may necessitate objec­ tives that create more modest expectations. They may also force greater cre­ ativity in your planning. So keep perspective when crafting your objectives. It is not feasible, for example, to spend 50 percent of a campaign budget on opinion research. You will need money to develop and deliver your messag­ es and motivate action. While you must set objectives to solve the problem and reach the goal, the objectives you set also shape the organization’s expectations of you and your communications and marketing team. Efficient. Objectives should also look for the easiest way to reach the goal. There are indeed many roads that lead to Rome. Whenever possible, pick the most direct route. As you write your objectives, it is helpful to spend some time thinking about how you will measure them. Determining ex­ actly how you will evaluate whether you reached your desired outcome will help you keep objectives simple and efficient. Trying to measure the percent of students on a university campus dis­ tracted by electronics after 10 p.m. will not be easy and will be even more difficult to validate. By contrast, measuring the reported number of hours students sleep per night is much more straightforward. Similarly, measuring interest in a new product is more difficult than tracking sales of the product. Mission-driven. As previously discussed, objectives must be in line with and support the organizational mission and goals. Objectives are required to address issues, problems, opportunities or improvements that management perceives as valuable. Keep in mind why the company is in business or why the organiza­ tion exists. What are the key factors that have and are contributing to its success? Then ask yourself if your objectives will contribute to or detract from the organization’s main purpose. Always doing this makes you strategic — of value to your organization because you help it ac­ complish its mission. Informational versus motivational objectives In addition to the characteristics of good objectives, it is important to recognize there are two basic kinds of objectives: informational and motivational. Each serves a different purpose, but both are integral to the overall accomplishment of any campaign. Setting goals and objectives 85 © Andrey Popov/Shutterstock.com chapter 5 86 chapter 5 Setting goals and objectives Differentiating between goals and objectives TIPS FROM THE PROS J. Michael Neumeier, APR, principal and co-founder of Arketi Group, an integrated public relations and marketing consultancy, tips you off on how to tell a goal from an objective. All too often, the terms goat and objective are used as interchangeable ways of saying the same thing. Plainly put, they are not — and the result­ ing lack of precision can be problematic. GOALS A goal is a “statement of being” for the plan. Often

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DSC 2190 Midterm Essay: Rationale for IDSC Major In this assignment, you will explain your rationale for applying to the IDSC major. (If you are not planning to apply to change your major to IDSC, then see the alternative prompt below at the end of this document). Your short essay must explain ALL of the following: • Each emphasis area (discipline) that you are pursuing or planning to pursue within your IDSC degree and why you chose these emphasis areas, • How the areas relate to each other, • Why you are pursuing a degree in Interdisciplinary Studies (why IDSC is a better fit for you rather than a traditional major), and • How the degree (and emphasis areas) will be used by you to further your longterm career goals. Requirements: • • • • • • Use professional language. This should NOT be a narrative story about your life. You should consider your audience: the faculty advisory board. This is a persuasive document. The purpose is to convince the board that IDSC is a good fit for you and that it will allow you to achieve your academic and career goals. State your case clearly and provide a logical, specific rationale for each emphasis area in relation to your desired career. MLA formatted header (your name, my name, course number, date), then the body 12 pt. professional font Two pages, double spaced, minimum (you can have more than two) Uploaded to Canvas as a Word doc or Pdf (no Pages) by the deadline listed in Canvas *** If you have decided not to pursue IDSC as your major, you may write your essay explaining which major you decided to pursue, why you chose that major, and how you will use that major to attain your career goals.than the objectives that follow. A goal also does not have to be specifically measurable. The measured achievement of stra­ tegic objectives should ensure that the overall goal is reached. Nevertheless, determining the goal may not be as simple as it appears. Too of­ ten, organizational communications and marketing personnel act unilaterally to set goals. But those are not isolated functions within an organization; they should be integral parts of the overall management approach. Setting campaign goals in isola­ tion, or without consideration of the organization’s overall goals, is dangerous and can lead to a lack of internal support. Two precautions can aid you in avoiding this problem. First, be sure you closely align campaign goals with the organization’s mission. Doing so will also align cam­ paign goals and objectives with the organization’s long-term purpose. A campaign goal is not as broad as a mission statement, but should be seen as a significant step toward achieving the organization’s mission. Second, verify that the campaign goal does not conflict with existing goals and objectives. Does my campaign goal mesh with what marketing, advertising, sales and public relations are already trying to accomplish? Will the campaign be cooper­ ating with or competing against existing initiatives? It is typically not enough to “not conflict” with the goals of other entities. Truly sound and defensible goals and objectives will enhance and support the overall organiza­ tional mission and goals. Figure 5.1 identifies some examples of possible organizational °db Figure 5.1 ____________________________________________________________ 0 Examples of organizational goals Business sector • • • • Maintain profitability. Maintain and gradually improve stock rating. Achieve a positive trust ranking. Maintain an operating environment with minimal government regulation. Public sector • • • • • Increase use of funded social programs. Cut overhead and increase flow of funds to programs. Decrease fraudulent use of social programs. Improve citizen access to and use of information. Increase government funding. Nonprofit sector • • • • Expand research efforts. Expand program reach. Secure private financial support of programs. Provide for the safety of the community. 82 chapter $ Setting goals and objectives goals. Remember that effective communication with key publics is necessary to create the environment in which the organization can reach its goals. Any single campaign — whether designed to solve a problem or to proactively position the organization — must be planned within the framework of the organization’s goals. Identifying objectives Once the goal is set, the challenge is to break down what you want to accomplish into smaller, more specific tasks. If your company’s goal is to expand a research program, your communications campaign may need to set objectives that involve se­ curing public approval, generating funding, attracting personnel and building com­ munity support for the renovation of facilities. Objectives are specific, measurable statements of what needs to be accomplished for the goal to be reached. Whereas a goal may be somewhat ambiguous (e.g., not defining how much is enough funding or profit), objectives must be absolutely precise. We strongly recommend that objectives meet the following eight criteria that have been carefully refined by communications and business professionals. Keep in mind that precision is important in not only being able to carry out but also to effectively measure your objectives. Specific. Objectives should be free from ambiguity. What you are hoping to accomplish should be specific and clearly articulated. Each objective should address only one outcome. You shouldn’t write an objective to increase awareness and improve sales. Similarly, achieving general awareness may not be enough. Be specific about what kind of awareness you are seeking. Do you want to increase awareness of an organization’s existence or of a specific product line? Are you targeting HIV awareness or, more specifically, the effect of its transmission to newborns? And what levels of awareness are you seeking based on current levels of public knowledge? Having spe­ cific objectives helps you more clearly understand what publics you need to reach and what you need each public to do. Your approach to achieving these outcomes and the associated tasks will become the strategies and tac­ tics used to reach key publics later in the planning process. Written. Objectives must be written down and published (at least shared with the communications and marketing team). This may seem obvious, but too often organizations assume everyone knows about and understands the campaign’s purpose and objectives. Unless they are written and shared, they have probably not been well thought out, and there may be differing perceptions of what the objectives really are. One member of the team may be working toward something entirely different than the other members because his/her perception of the desired outcome is different than the rest of the team’s. Putting your objectives in writing helps to solidify and refine the plan while avoiding confusion over what you are trying to accomplish. Further, written objectives serve as reference points throughout the planning process. When you come to a point of disagreement on any ele­ ment of the planning process or when you run out of ideas somewhere in the process, it often helps to go back and review exactly what it is you are trying to accomplish. Finally, written objectives serve as tangible guides for evaluation. They allow you to demonstrate how far you’ve come — not only in a campaign but also as a professional. chapter 5 Measurable. Objectives must be improvement-oriented and quantifiable. Anything measurable must have a number tied to it. Numbers can be rep­ resented in percentages or simple figures. Examples of percentage-based objectives are: a 20 percent increase in sales, a 50 percent jump in dona­ tions and a 60 percent decline in the number of high school students who have experimented with drugs before graduation. Examples of simple figure objectives are: raising $200,000 for the women’s shelter, getting 3,000 participants in a 5K and engaging 6,000 people on an issue through social media. To be improvement-oriented, objectives must work together in order to achieve your overall goal. Rarely will one objective suffice. Plan to have a number of objectives that all measure progress toward the goal. If your goal is to open a new food bank, objectives could focus on fundraising, citizen support, government support and determining the best location. When working with percentages, remember to carefully state the percent increase or decrease and use clarifying phrases. Otherwise, you might set yourself up to disappoint management’s expectations created by your own objectives. If you want to increase the percentage of ele­ mentary school kids brushing their teeth at least twice a day, you should follow up that number by specifically stating the benchmark or starting point. You might write an objective like this: to increase the number of elementary school children in Arizona who brush their teeth at least twice a day from 25 percent to 75 percent by May 1, 2015. Make sure you know the difference between a 50 percent increase and a 50 percentage­ point increase. The first is dependent on the starting point to calculate the actual increase. Fifty percent of 25 is 12.5, which would make your target 37.5 percent of school children brushing their teeth. A 50 percent­ age point-increase takes you from 25 percent to 75 percent of school children brushing — two very different results. Similarly, a 20 percent increase in participation among a total population of 100 is not 20 peo­ ple. The percent increase depends on the current level of participation, not the total population. If 50 of 100 people are currently participating, a 20 percent increase would be 10 people (20 percent of 50), from 50 to 60 participants, or a 10 percentage-point improvement. Be very precise when planning and writing your objectives. Sometimes statistics on opinion, awareness and action are not readily available. If you are certain the level of knowledge or participation is mini­ mal, you can reasonably state the level it needs to rise to in order to accom­ plish the goal. If you don’t have statistical measures for something, find another way to count the improvement. Attainable. Objectives need to be realistic if they are to be attainable. Keeping objectives specific and clear will help you set realistic targets. But you still need to set your sights on significant improvement. Management will scorn objectives that don’t cause the organization to stretch and are too easily achieved. Executives have little respect for employees and managers who are unwilling to reach a bit, to take some risks and to challenge themselves. Nevertheless, if you shoot for the moon and just hit the stars, you may be branded as having fallen short, even if the stars were all you really needed to reach. Setting goals and objectives 83 84 chapter 5 Setting goals and objectives Writing goals and objectives The local oil refinery has a good record of community involvement and an approval rating among local publics of 75 percent. Nevertheless, it continual­ ly faces scrutiny and even opposition from environmental activists. Recently, one of the pipelines sprung a leak. Before the leak was found and fixed, the equivalent of 100 barrels of oil seeped out into a small creek that runs through a residential neighborhood. The company immediately mobilized teams of experts, employees and local volunteers to clean up the small spill and restore the area (as much as possible) to its original pristine condition. GOAL To restore the company’s approval rating and neutralize regulatory threats. OBJECTIVES © Tukkata Moji/Shutterstock.com 1. Raise awareness to 80 percent of the company’s efforts to respond responsibly to the spill within three weeks. 2. Raise awareness to 80 percent of the company’s local contribution to the community and economy within six months. 3. Restore public approval to its previous 75 percent level within six months. 4. Ensure no new state or local regulations (resulting from the spill) are enacted within the next three years. Time-bound. Objectives need to have a deadline. They should clearly outline when you expect to achieve a specific outcome. Setting objectives in time also determines when you will measure your success or failure. The du­ ration of a campaign will be determined by the problem or opportunity being addressed. Some campaigns may require short, quick efforts (a few days, weeks or months) while others may necessitate long-range efforts. Some campaigns have built-in dead­ lines (e.g., attendance at a special event for a product launch). Others are designed to change perceptions and attitudes, which happens slowly. Every objective, however, must include a target date. In some cases, interim measures may be helpful in measuring progress along the way and keeping you on track to reach the objective. For example, you might have a fundraising objective to raise $30 million for the construction of a new community theatre. Bench­ marking the objective to raise $10 million in the first six months may be necessary to give the project the momentum it needs to succeed. Cost-conscious. Objectives must take into consideration the available budget. It goes without saying that you should choose the most cost-effective ways to achieve the desired outcomes in any campaign. There will always be organizational pressure to accomplish more with less. Smart strate­ gists look for low-cost options first. Although you won’t always know what budget will be available for a specific pro­ gram when you are at this preliminary stage of planning, be sensitive to the organi­ zation’s internal climate. A recession, slow sales or downsizing may necessitate objec­ tives that create more modest expectations. They may also force greater cre­ ativity in your planning. So keep perspective when crafting your objectives. It is not feasible, for example, to spend 50 percent of a campaign budget on opinion research. You will need money to develop and deliver your messag­ es and motivate action. While you must set objectives to solve the problem and reach the goal, the objectives you set also shape the organization’s expectations of you and your communications and marketing team. Efficient. Objectives should also look for the easiest way to reach the goal. There are indeed many roads that lead to Rome. Whenever possible, pick the most direct route. As you write your objectives, it is helpful to spend some time thinking about how you will measure them. Determining ex­ actly how you will evaluate whether you reached your desired outcome will help you keep objectives simple and efficient. Trying to measure the percent of students on a university campus dis­ tracted by electronics after 10 p.m. will not be easy and will be even more difficult to validate. By contrast, measuring the reported number of hours students sleep per night is much more straightforward. Similarly, measuring interest in a new product is more difficult than tracking sales of the product. Mission-driven. As previously discussed, objectives must be in line with and support the organizational mission and goals. Objectives are required to address issues, problems, opportunities or improvements that management perceives as valuable. Keep in mind why the company is in business or why the organiza­ tion exists. What are the key factors that have and are contributing to its success? Then ask yourself if your objectives will contribute to or detract from the organization’s main purpose. Always doing this makes you strategic — of value to your organization because you help it ac­ complish its mission. Informational versus motivational objectives In addition to the characteristics of good objectives, it is important to recognize there are two basic kinds of objectives: informational and motivational. Each serves a different purpose, but both are integral to the overall accomplishment of any campaign. Setting goals and objectives 85 © Andrey Popov/Shutterstock.com chapter 5 86 chapter 5 Setting goals and objectives Differentiating between goals and objectives TIPS FROM THE PROS J. Michael Neumeier, APR, principal and co-founder of Arketi Group, an integrated public relations and marketing consultancy, tips you off on how to tell a goal from an objective. All too often, the terms goat and objective are used as interchangeable ways of saying the same thing. Plainly put, they are not — and the result­ ing lack of precision can be problematic. GOALS A goal is a “statement of being” for the plan. Often

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the ORDER NOW option to get instant services at LindasHelp.com. We assure you of a well
written and plagiarism free papers delivered within your specified deadline.

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